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Error Handling

There are two reasons why your Convex queries and mutations may hit errors:

  1. Developer Errors: There is a bug in the function (like calling db.get(null) instead of db.get(id)).
  2. Internal Convex Errors: There is a problem within Convex (like a network blip).

Convex will automatically handle internal Convex errors. If there are problems on our end, we'll automatically retry your queries and mutations until the problem is resolved and your queries and mutations succeed.

On the other hand, you must decide how to handle developer errors. When a developer error happens, the best practices are to:

  1. Show the user some appropriate UI.
  2. Send the error to an exception reporting service like Sentry so that you can follow up and fix the bug.

This guide provides advice on how to do both of these things.

Errors in queries

If your query function hits an error, the error will be sent to the client and thrown from your useQuery call site. The best way to handle these errors is with a React error boundary component.

Error boundaries allow you to catch errors thrown in their child component tree, render fallback UI, and send information about the error to your exception handling service. Adding error boundaries to your app is a great way to handle errors in Convex query functions as well as other errors in your React components. If you are using Sentry, you can use their Sentry.ErrorBoundary component.

With error boundaries, you can decide how granular you'd like your fallback UI to be. Once simple option is to wrap your entire application in a single error boundary like:

<ConvexProvider client={convex}>
<App />

Then any error in any of your components will be caught by the boundary and render the same fallback UI.

On the other hand, if you'd like to enable some portions of your app to continue functioning even if other parts hit errors, you can instead wrap different parts of your app in separate error boundaries.


Unlike other frameworks, there is no concept of "retrying" if your query function hits a developer error. Because Convex functions are deterministic, if the query function hits an error, retrying will always produce the same error. There is no point in running the query function with the same arguments again.

Errors in mutations

If a mutation hits an error, this will

  1. Cause the promise returned from your mutation call to be rejected.
  2. Cause your optimistic update to be rolled back.

If you have an exception service like Sentry configured, it should report "unhandled promise rejections" like this automatically. That means that with no additional work your mutation errors should be reported.

Note that errors in mutations won't be caught by your error boundaries because the error doesn't happen as part of rendering your components.

If you would like to render UI specifically in response to a mutation failure, you can use .catch on your mutation call. For example:

sendMessage(newMessageText).catch(error => {
// Do something with your error here.

If you're using an async handled function you can also use try...catch:

try {
await sendMessage(newMessageText);
} catch {
// Do something with your error here.
Reporting caught errors

If you handle your mutation error, it will no longer become an unhandled promise rejection. You may need to report this error to your exception handling service manually.

Errors in action functions

Unlike queries and mutations, actions may have side-effects and therefore can't be automatically retried by Convex when errors occur. For example, say your action sends a email. If it fails part-way through, Convex has no way of knowing if the email was already sent and can't safely retry the action. It is responsibility of the caller to handle errors raised by actions and retry if appropriate.

Expected failures

If you have common ways that you expect your query and mutations to fail, it's often simpler to use TypeScript union return types to communicate these cases instead of exceptions.

For example, a createUser mutation could return Id | "EMAIL_ADDRESS_IN_USE" to express that either the mutation succeeded or the email address was already taken.

This ensures that you remember to handle these cases in your UI. It also saves errors for unexpected bugs that should be fixed.